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China Insights

Country Information Breif

China is located in eastern Asia, on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. The land area is about 9.6 million square kilometres, ranking third in the world after Russia and Canada. China borders 14 countries, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nepal to the west, Russia and Mongolia to the north, North Korea to the northeast, and Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam to the south. China is a mountainous country. Plateaus, mountains and hills occupy two-thirds of China's land area. There are various climate types in China. The eastern half of the country has a continental monsoon prevailing in winter, which is cold and dry; in summer, ocean monsoon prevails, and a humid, hot and rainy continental monsoon climate prevails. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a high altitude and a large area, forming a unique alpine climate. The north-western region has an inland arid climate due to its location. Drought and flood disasters in China occur once a year on average. Droughts occurred in the north, while droughts and floods occurred in the south. In summer and autumn, the southeast coast of China is often hit by typhoons.

Political System

In the history, from the Qin Dynasty (BC 221-207) to the Qing Dynasty (1636-1912), China continued the centralization of authority for more than 2,000 years. Besides, because of the influence of the West on China at the beginning of the 20th century as well as its own features at the time, Chinese society did not undertake the era of the Industrial Revolution in the development process. The long and ancient Chinese culture has a profound and far-reaching influence on this country. All these important reasons and many other factors made this country choose a political system that is very different from Western countries after the establishment of the new Chinese regime in 1949. At present, China is one of the few five communist countries in the world. However, it should be noted that although China's communism started from the former Soviet Union, China's socialism has its own characteristics in the course of national development. The People's Republic of China implements the "multi-party cooperation and political consultation system under the leadership of the Communist Party of China." There are the Communist Party of China and eight democratic parties. The Communist Party of China is the only ruling party in China.

Cultural Corner

Spring Festival

Chinese New Year starts with the New Moon(新月)on the first day of the new year and ends on the full moon(满月)15 days later. The 15th day of the new year is called the Lantern Festival(元宵节), which is celebrated at night with lantern displays and children carrying lanterns in a parade.
The Chinese calendar is based on a combination of lunar and solar movements. The lunar cycle(月运周期)is about 29.5 days. In order to "catch up" with the solar calendar the Chinese insert an extra month once every few years (seven years out of a 19-year cycle). This is the same as adding an extra day on leap year (闰年). This is why, according to the solar calendar, the Chinese New Year falls on a different date each year.

Mid-Autumn Festival

The Mid-Autumn Festival (Chinese: 中秋節 / 中秋节), also known as the Moon Festival or Mooncake Festival, is a traditional festival celebrated in Chinese culture. Similar holidays are celebrated in Japan (Tsukimi), Korea(Chuseok), Vietnam (Tết Trung Thu), and other countries in East and Southeast Asia. It is one of the most important holidays in Chinese culture; its popularity is on par with that of Chinese New Year. The history of the Mid-Autumn Festival dates back over 3,000 years. The festival is held on the 15th day of the 8th month of the Chinese lunisolar calendar with a full moon at night, corresponding to mid-September to early October of the Gregorian calendar. On this day, the Chinese believe that the Moon is at its brightest and fullest size, coinciding with harvest time in the middle of Autumn.

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